Samuel Smith - Historia

Samuel Smith - Historia

Smid, Samuel

Smith, Samuel (1752-1839) Allmänt: Smith reste flitigt genom Europa som superlast av ett av hans fars handelsfartyg. Efter slaget vid Lexington återvände han till Amerika och 1776 utnämndes han till kapten för det sjätte kompaniet vid överste William Smallwoods regemente vid Marylandlinjen. Han beordrades att åka till Annapolis och ta beslag av guvernör Robert Eden i Maryland på grund av förrädisk korrespondens. När Smith anlände till Annapolis förbjöd emellertid säkerhetskommittén honom att göra gripandet eftersom de hävdade att det skulle vara ett otillbörligt antagande av auktoritet. Smiths regemente kämpade i slaget vid Long Island, slaget vid Harlem och slaget vid White Plains, samt reträtten från New Jersey. Han befordrades till rang som major, då överstelöjtnant vid 4: e Maryland-regementet. Han tjänade med kredit vid attacken på Staten Island och på Brandywine. På Fort Mifflin skadades Smith allvarligt, men deltog ändå i vinterns svårigheter i Valley Forge och i slaget vid Monmouth. Efter att ha tjänstgjort i tre och ett halvt år reducerades han till fattigdom och tvingades avgå från sitt uppdrag, även om han fortsatte att tjänstgöra i Baltimore -milisen fram till slutet av revolutionskriget. Hotet om krig med Frankrike och England 1794 ledde till Smiths utnämning till brigadgeneral för milisen i Baltimore, med rang som generalmajor. Smith valdes till en representant för kongressen och en senator, och tjänstgjorde en kort period som marinesekreterare under president Thomas Jefferson. Han kämpade i kriget 1812, hjälpte till att grunda Bank of Maryland och var en av projektorerna för Washington -monumentet och stridsmonumentet i Baltimore. Nära slutet av sitt liv valdes han till borgmästare i Baltimore.


Sam Smith

Våra redaktörer kommer att granska vad du har skickat in och avgöra om artikeln ska revideras.

Sam Smith, i sin helhet Samuel Frederick Smith, (född 19 maj 1992, London, England), brittisk soulsångerska med en riklig röst som var känd för texter som undergrävde föreställningarna om romantisk kärlek som definierade populär soulmusik.

Smith växte upp i Cambridgeshire, född av en pappa som var lastbilschaufför och grönsakshandlare och en mor som var bankir. Båda föräldrarna uppmuntrade Smiths sång i ung ålder, efter att den spirande sångaren imponerat på dem med en återgivning av Whitney Houstons "My Love Is Your Love". Smith fortsatte sångutbildning och uppträdde snart i lokala teaterproduktioner och med Youth Music Theatre UK, gick igenom sex chefer innan han slutligen flyttade till London vid 18 års ålder för att driva möjligheter där.

Det första stora avbrottet kom när Smith samarbetade med husduon Disclosure på spåret "Latch", som innehöll Smiths flytande falsettsång genom ett sprudlande elektroniskt beat. Den inspelningen släpptes 2012 och framstod som en hit. Samarbetet gav Smith ett skivkontrakt. I början av 2013 hade sångaren släppt "Lay Me Down", den första singeln från Smiths debutalbum, I den ensamma timmen. Smiths sång fanns också på det framdrivande elektroniska spåret "La La La" (2013), av producenten Naughty Boy. Breakout singeln från I den ensamma timmen, "Stay with Me", en intensiv falsettballad som bedrövligt bönfaller en en-natt-ställning för kärlek, blev en radioklammer efter att den släpptes 2014. Smith citerade influenser från sångare som Houston och Aretha Franklin, som båda drev fram deras kraftfulla , skyhöga röster till high end av deras register när de framkallade kärlek och saknad. Dessa teman definieras I den ensamma timmen, ett album som Smith, som var homosexuell, hade komponerat i kölvattnet av ett romantiskt avslag av en heterosexuell man.

Den unga sångaren fick stadigt utmärkelser för dulcet -stylingar och gjorde jämförelser med crooners som sträckte sig från Frank Sinatra till Adele. Vid Grammy Awards 2015 I den ensamma timmen utsågs till bästa popsångalbum och "Stay with Me" tilldelades årets rekord och årets låt. Smith ansågs vara den bästa nya artisten.

Uppenbarelsen i början av 2015 om att sångaren hade löst sig utanför rätten med musiker Tom Petty över melodiska likheter mellan "Stay with Me" och Pettys singel 1989 "I Won't Back Down" dämpades av ett uttalande från rockern som uttryckte välvilja gentemot Smith och berömmer hur snabbt situationen korrigerades. Även 2015 sjöng Smith "Writing's on the Wall", som Smith skrev med Jimmy Napes, för James Bond -filmen Spöke duon vann senare ett Oscar för bästa originallåt. Under acceptanstalet citerade Smith en intervju med skådespelaren Ian McKellen, vilket felaktigt antydde att Smith var den första öppet homosexuella mannen som vann en Oscar. Sångaren uttryckte ånger för fyndet efteråt och tog en kort paus från rampljuset. Smiths andra studioalbum, Spänningen i allt, släpptes i slutet av 2017 och vann både populärt och kritiskt beröm. Låten "Him", en vädjan om accept av Smiths kärlek till en man, blev särskilt hyllad. År 2019 meddelade Smith en icke -binär identitet och twittrade att "mina pronomen är de/dem."


En amerikansk familjehistoria

De Delstaten Franklin var en okänd, oberoende stat i det som nu är östra Tennessee. Det skapades 1784 med avsikt att bli den fjortonde staten. Dess första huvudstad var Jonesborough. Den existerade i ungefär fyra och ett halvt år och sedan övertog North Carolina kontrollen igen.

Samuel Smith föddes omkring 1755.

Han gifte sig med sin kusin, Mary Smith.

Samuel Smith (1780),
George Smith (1784)
Jacob Smith (1785)
James Smith

År 1777 undertecknade en Samuel Smith 1777 Petition av Holston Men.

År 1779 var en Samuel Smith fredsdomare i Sullivan County Tennessee.

År 1780 utsågs han till fredsdomare i Sullivan County, Tennessee.

20 mars 1787 hölls en konferens i Samuel Smith, Esq: s hus mellan Evan Shelby och John Sevier om staten Franklin.

1781 ersatte Zebulon Smith Samuel i milisen.

Samuel Smith fick markbidrag i Sullivan County, Tennessee:
1057 och 1086 år 1782
1446 år 1788

År 1786 togs Hawkins County från Sullivan County, Tennessee. En kommission inklusive Joseph Martin, James McNeil, John Duncan, William King, Evan Shelby, Samuel Smith och John Scott valdes ut för att hitta en plats för länsrätten. Tydligen gjorde de ingenting åt det, och en ny kommission namngavs 1795. (från Historiska skisser, volym 10, 1976 av The Historical Society of Southwest Virginia)

År 1791 fick Samuel ett landbidrag i Hawkins County.

  • Börjar vid en tall och svart ek på sin egen linje
  • därifrån söder trettiofyra väster hundra stolpar till en kornel tall och Sowerwood
  • därifrån norr sextiosju väster tvåhundra och åttio poler till en insats
  • därifrån norr fyrtio öst hundra nittio två poler till sin hörn duble Chesnut på toppen av en ås därifrån söder fyrtiofem öst tvåhundra och åttio poler till början

Till alla till vilka dessa presenter kommer att hälsa Vet ni att vi för och med hänsyn till summan av femtio shilling för varje hundra tunnland här genom beviljade betalas in i vår kassa av Samuel Smith har gett och beviljat och med dessa gåvor ger och ger Samuel Smith en mark som innehåller sex hundra trettio tunnland [630]

ligger och är i vårt län Sullivan på södra sidan av Holston River på Hickory Creek


Perfekt med en skål med blandade nötter, med vassa ostar eller med en klassisk mol & eacute sås entr & eacutee. Till efterrätt, prova med kompletterande vit-, mjölk- eller mörk chokladhasselnötsbiskotti eller chokladmousse. Kontrast med citrus cr & egraveme karamell eller vaniljglass. Ett glas Organic Chocolate Stout är en godbit med en tillsats av 10% Lindemans Framboise lambic. Servera vid 50 ° F.

Guldmedalj - US Open 2019. "Choklad/kakaoöl" som meddelades 9 juli 2019. Här är hela listan över vinnare.

4/5 stjärnor, rekommenderas starkt, Spirit Journal, december 2016

Bästa chokladöl, Herrtidning

95 poäng - & quot omedelbart attraktiv och välbalanserad. & quot Wine Enthusiast Magazine, december 2014. Fullständig recension här.

Fem av fem stjärnor, Celebrator Beer News, oktober/november 2014.

Guldmedalj - VM i öl (mars, 2013)

Fem av fem muggar, "Superb" Modern bryggeriålder, 10 december 2012.


The Wellfleet Tavern Site - Great Island - Wellfleet

Tallriksked, Great Island Tavern.

Historiska arkeologiska platser, huvudsakligen små gårdar med stor spridning och linjärt arrangerade längs små, öst-västra löpande dalar, finns i hela ytterkapet. Den första europeiska bosättningen av ytterkapet inträffade cirka 1644 när kolonister från Plymouth flyttade till Eastham. Historisk forskning berättar att fiske, valfångst, handel och jordbruk alla var viktiga för dessa nya invånare i yttre udden. En unik plats som kan besökas är Wellfleet Tavern -webbplatsen (även känd som Samuel Smith Tavern Site och Great Island Tavern -webbplatsen) på Great Island, en del av udden som nu utgör en yttre gräns för Wellfleet Harbour. Platsen grävdes 1969 och 1970 av arkeologerna Erik Ekholm och James Deetz. Analys av artefakterna som samlats in av Ekholm och Deetz indikerar aktivitet på platsen mellan 1690 och 1740. Artefakttyperna som finns på platsen relaterar till dess beteckning som en krog, inklusive höga andelar av dricksfartyg, rörstammar och andra typer av glas.

Parkens Great Island Trail passerar Wellfleet Tavern -webbplatsen. Tolkningsdisplayer som beskriver och illustrerar gamla och historiska invånare och levnadssätt på Cape Cod finns på National Park Service Salt Pond Visitor Center, i hörnet av Route 6 och Nauset Road, Eastham.


Samuel Smith - Historia

& quotSAMUEL SMITH, kallad löjtnant Samuel efter hans utnämning 1663, föddes i England, troligen nära Hadleigh i Suffolk, 1601 eller 1602 där han gifte sig cirka 1624 med en Elizabeth som d. i So. Hadley, Mass., 16 mars 1686, 84 år gammal. Han dog i Hadley Massachusetts i december 1680, 78 år. (Hans gods inventerades i januari 1681) Han kom med sin fru och fyra av hans barn i skeppet & quotElizabeth & quot vilket seglade från Ipswich, Suffolk, England (se Judds & quotHadley & quot) den 30 april 1634. Han och hans hustru Elizabeth gav deras ålder som 32 år, och namngav deras fyra barn enligt följande: Samuel, Jr., 9 år Elizabeth, ålder 7 Mary ålder 4 och Philip, ålder 1. Ombord på samma fartyg fanns familjer som heter Rayner, Kemball, Scott, Munnings, Mixer, Bradstreet, Underwood, alla uppges ha varit Suffolk -folk och Lewis, Woodward, Bloomfield, Day, Hastings, Gouldson, Cutting och Firmin vars ursprung är okänt.

& quotAtt anta en period på två till tre månader för att slutföra en korsning av Atlanten på den tiden nådde familjen förmodligen inte Amerikas stränder tidigare än i slutet av juli eller början av augusti 1634. Just var de landade är inte känt. Vissa säger att det var i Salem och verkligen en Samuel Smyth (sic) är inspelad (Annals of Salem av Joseph B. Felt, Vol. I, s. 167) som att ha beviljats ​​mark och gjort en frieman i Salem efter 1637. Men the & quotHistory of Salem & quot; av Sidney Perley, Vol. II, sidan 11, säger, & quotat ett möte i hela staden den 23 april 1638 det beviljades att Samuel Smith 200 tunnland mark var 50 mer än hans tidigare bidrag på 100 (sic) tunnland som ogiltigförklarades & quot sedan i en fot notera det uppges att Samuel Smith var en av de allra första nybyggarna i Enon som blev Wenham. Han gifte sig med Sarah som dog hösten 1642. På sidan 127 i samma Vol. II står det att Samuel Smith byggde ett hus i Wenham där han bodde fram till 1642 när han dog.

& quot Det här Salem -rekordet verkar avskaffa påståendet att Wethersfield Samuel Smith först bosatte sig i Salem. Att han befann sig i Watertown bekräftas av det faktum att han i september 1634, som måste ha varit strax efter hans ankomst från England, var en frieman och en tidig ägare i den staden men utan bevis för att han var bosatt. (se Bonds History of Watertown, s. 1017.) Vissa har gissat att han omedelbart åkte till Wethersfield Connecticut. Denna författare tvivlar på detta eftersom inget tillstånd gavs så tidigt av tribunalen för att flytta därifrån och vara friman och därför kyrkomedlem i god och gynnsam ställning och med rösträtt i staden är det osannolikt att han skulle ha riskerat så mycket med sin hustrusfamilj och fyra små barn inför så många andra faror och svårigheter. Han kunde dock ha vågat ensam lämna sin familj med vänner eller släktingar på havsbotten medan han gjorde en utforskande resa och som vi kommer att se senare misstänker denna författare att det var vad han gjorde. Tribunalen gav sitt godkännande den 6 maj och 3 juni 1635 för avlägsnande av människor från Watertown & quotto var som helst de tror att de träffas för att göra val, förutsatt att de fortsätter under denna regering & quot och det var efter ett av dessa datum som det verkar rimligt att Samuel Smith och hans familj gick. Adams och Stiles i deras monumentala & quotAncient Wethersfield & quot, säger på sidan 300 i Vol I att de kom & quotin 1635 eller sent 1634 & quot.

& quotHur han gjorde resan är inte känt. Han kunde ha gjort det, som många gjorde, över landväg över indiska spår eller han kunde ha gått med vatten som på vissa sätt var mer farligt på grund av stormar och okända kanaler som tog ut sin rätt vid kustfartyg. Några skickade sina hushållsgods med vatten men tog med sig sina hästar, boskap och grisar till lands. Winthrop's & quotHistory of New England & quot, sidan 140 Vol. Jag berättar om ett parti med sextio män, kvinnor och små barn som åkte över landet till Connecticut i september 1635 med sina kor, hästar och svin och anlände säkert. Wethersfield sägs ha upptäckts av John Oldham och tre andra hösten 1633. De som kom 1635 och 1636 enligt & quotBonds History of Watertown, Massachusetts & quot, som anges på sidan 29 i Adams och Stiles & quotOld Wethersfield & quot, inkluderar Samuel Smith och löjtnant Robert Seeley. Det finns en stark implikation att Samuel kan ha gått före sin familj. På sidan 30 - 31av Adams and Stiles & quotAncient Wethersfield & quot ges en Iist av nyanlända i Wethersfield mellan 1636 och 1640 & quotno senare än 1645 & quot. I den listan finns pastor Henry Smith och & dessa söner Samuel och Philip & quot. Eftersom pastor Henry inte hade någon son Philip och hans son Samuel inte föddes förrän 1638 eller 39 (se sidan 628 i Vol. II i Stiles & quot Ancient Wethersfield & quot) och Samuel hade söner med båda namnen vars ålder 1636 var 11 respektive 3 ( se sidan 647 i Vol. II i Stiles & quotAncient Wethersfield & quot) det är ganska säkert att Samuel och Philip listade var söner till Samuel snarare än till pastor Henry. Om detta är sant, här för att bevisa att de anlände senare än deras far som kom 1635 eller 36, och därmed löste frågan om hur han kunde ha inrymt dem det första året i vildmarken i Pyquag, det indiska namnet på bosättningen innan det var döptes om till Wethersfield. När han var där framför honom kunde han ha byggt ett hem för deras ankomst året efter. En karta över gamla Wethersfield med layout av gator och partier, 1633, _34, visar hembygden Samuel Smith som ligger på Broad Street mellan hushållen till Thomas Killbourn i norr och John Edwards i söder. Hushållet till pastor Henry Smith, den första pastorn i Wethersfield Church, även Richard Smiths och William Smiths hushåll anges på kartan. Ingen av dessa tre Smiths tros ha varit släkt med Samuel. Nathaniel Foote och J. Churchill med vars familjer medlemmar och ättlingar till familjen Samuel Smith senare gift sig, visas men inte John Roote eller Luke Hitchcock som kom senare. Robert Seeley, från vilken barnen till denna författares son direkt härstammar, visas, han har varit en av de mycket tidiga nybyggarna i Wethersfield.

"Samuel Smith kallas" The Fellmonger "i de tidiga Wethersfield -posterna, vilket betyder mycket troligt att han var en garvare av handel och en återförsäljare av skinn och päls av djur. Ordet hänvisar i allmänhet till fårskal men det kunde inte ha funnits många får i den vargen som angripna vildmarken vid så tidigt datum, även om det fanns några lite senare. Denna författare förväntade sig snarare att upptäcka att han var en representant eller pälshandlare i London som började bli aktiva i Nordamerika vid den tiden, men inga dokument för att stödja denna gissning har hittats. Han måste ha varit en man på något sätt eftersom han räknade in ett bra antal markköp och försäljningar i Wethersfield. På sidan 643, vol. I of Adams and Stiles & quotAncient Wethersfield & quot uttalandet görs att Samuel Smith var & quotone av de rikaste männen Wethersfield & quot. Detta var 1646. Hans son John 1672 antogs genom stadsröstning i Wethersfield som invånare för att inrätta & kvotera handel med tarnning i denna stad & quot. Han hade bott i Hadley och hade uppenbarligen återvänt till Wethersfield då eller tidigare.

Samuel Smith tjänstgjorde Wethersfield som suppleant vid tribunalen nästan kontinuerligt från november 1637 till maj 1656. Han fungerade också som assistent för Connecticut -kolonin i mars och april 1638. (Se Conn. Colonial records) Tribunalen satt först i Hartford (26.836 april) med bemyndigande av en kommission från guvernör Winthrop - Massachusetts till & quotgovern folket i Connecticut under en period av ett år & quot. Pastor Henry Smith var en av guvernörens ursprungliga tillsatta och bodde i Watertown Massachusetts vid den tiden. Senare kallade tribunalen i Connecticut, som innehöll de valda suppleanterna, & quot; General Assembly & quot. I maj 1678 var det känt som & quot; guvernören och rådet & quot. I maj 1698 delades det upp i två sektioner som kallades "Överhuset" som bestod av guvernören eller hans ställföreträdare och hans assistenter och "Lågare huset" som bestod av suppleanter från de flera städerna. År 1819 blev överhuset senatorer, underhuset, representanter.

& quotDomstolen bestod tidigt av guvernören och minst sju utvalda assistenter och fyra suppleanter från varje stad. Det utförde inte bara lagstiftande och domstolsfunktioner utan fungerade också som "valdomstolen" med makt att välja guvernören och hans assistenter. I februari 1651 tjänstgjorde Samuel Smith som medlem i en särskild domstol i Hartford, utvald att pröva John Carrington och hans fru för trolldom. Ett åtal & quot du förtjänar att färga & quot återlämnades men domen genomfördes förmodligen inte.

& quotSamuel Smith deltog i ett antal marktransaktioner och verkar ha varit engagerad i olika kommersiella företag. I november 1649 bemyndigade tribunalen honom och & quot resten av ägarna till skeppet på Wethersfield att passa och göra så många pipestaves som kommer att frakta ut den första sjöfarten, etc. & quot. Pipestaves användes i Västindien för att göra fat för transport av melass, rom, saltbiff, fläsk och fisk. Byggandet av detta fartyg hade godkänts av tribunalen och var förmodligen det första fartyget som byggdes i Connecticut. Thomas Deming, en skeppssnickare, var förmodligen byggmästare. Fartyget fick namnet & quot; Tryall & quot; och kaptenen var först av Mr. Larribee, och båtmannen var Christopher Fox från Wethersfield. Det verkar som om hon fortfarande var i drift 1662, så långt till Västindles. Den 28 december 1629 valdes Samuel Smith Sr., Nathaniel Dickinson och Mr. Trat (troligen Richard Treat) av staden för att få plats för män och kvinnor i möteshuset & quot, ett viktigt uppdrag i de dagar då social rang som praktiserades i gamla England påverkade fortfarande nybyggarna. Sittplatser gjordes på grundval av gemenskapens ställning och kunde göras i fred bara av frimän som var högst ansedda både för integritet och social rang.

Den 28 mars 1653 i ett stadsmöte var Samuel Smith en av dem som valdes att träffa en kommitté från Mattabeseck (Middletown) för att fixera gränslinjen mellan de två bosättningarna. Gränsfrågor var besvärliga på den tiden och krävde många justeringar för att lösa överlappande och kränkande problem som uppstod bland nybyggarna.

I maj 1653 blev Samuel Smith medlem i kommittén för krig i Wethersfield och någon gång före 1658 beställdes en sergeant för tågbandet Wethersfield. Tågbandet var en organisation som bildades för att försvara staden och dess officerare valdes ut av soldaterna, med förbehåll för bekräftelse från den särskilda domstolen som behandlade de mindre fallen, brottslingar som hade rätt att överklaga till tribunalen. Wethersfield skickade en kontingent män under kommando av löjtnant Robert Seeley för att bekämpa Pequots 1637 och det sägs att Samuel Smith var en av gruppen men denna författare har inte sett några säkra bevis på det. (Många tidiga rekord av Wethersfield gick förmodligen förlorade vid tiden för Stamford- och Hadley -migreringarna.)

& quot för det andra, 1659, som återkallade ytterligare ett antal personer som tog bort sig från jurisdiktionen i Connecticut till Massachusetts jurisdiktion och grundade Hadley. undertecknades av 59 män, varav 20, inklusive Samuel Smith Sr., Samuel Smith Jr. och Philip Smith var från Wethersfield. Underskrivarna gick med på att flytta sig själva och familjer till den nya bosättningen på östra sidan av floden från Northhampton och att bo där den 39: e september 1660. Rev. John Russell Jr. av Wethersfield var deras andliga ledare och blev deras första minister på Hadley.

& quotThe History of Northampton av Trumbull Vol. I, sidan 76 hänvisar till ombuden för Hartford Company, varav en var Samuel Smith från Wethersfield, som köpte 1659 ängen till & quotCapewonke & quot; senare känt som Hatfleld. Det var då en del av Nanotuck (Nonotuck) inklusive Northampton, en del av bidraget till nybyggarna från Connecticut, till stor del Windsor och Hartford, som bosatte sig Northampton 1653. Det betalade priset var 30 pund i vete och ärter, levererat på Hartford , och betalningen registreras som om den har gjorts omedelbart. (Första boken av handlingar på Springsfield.)

Den 9 november 1659 i Hartford och ungefär samtidigt på Wethersfield och vid den nya plantagen i Norwottuck (Hadley) som då inkluderade Capewonke, nybyggarna och nybyggarna, valde sju män, bland dem Samuel Smith, & quotto beställa alla offentliga tillfällen som rör nyttan av den plantagen för året som följde & quot (First Book of Records in Hadley)

Det fanns 48 ursprungliga ägare till bosättningen i Norwottuck -landet, senare kallat Hadley, inklusive bland dem Samuel Smith och hans söner Chileab och Philip. Det kommer att noteras att hans söner Samuel och John inte dyker upp. John verkar, enligt uppgifterna, växelvis i Hadley och Wethersfield. Samuel, Jr. tros ha flyttat till New London och därifrån till Virginia och allt spår efter honom förlorat. (S. 647 Vol. II of Stiles & quotAncient Wethersfield & quot)

Samuel Smiths offentliga liv i den nya Norwottuck -plantagen, senare Hadley, började strax efter hans ankomst, han och Peter Tilton valdes till stadsmätare den 31 december 1660 för att lägga ut markerna för nybyggarna, placera insatser vid & quotfront och bakre & quot mycket och registrera dem. Under samma månad på Norwottuck, tillsammans med Nathaniel Dickinson, Andrew Bacon, Andrew Warner och William Lewis, valdes Samuel Smith till en av de första Townsmen, nu kallade Selectmen. Han deltog i generaldomstolen i Springfield i mars 1661 som jurymedlem. Vid nästa domstolsmöte den 22 maj fick staden namnet Hadley, efter Hadleigh i Suffolk County, England, varifrån några av bosättarna kom, troligen Samuel Smith och hans fru, Elizabeth.

Domstolens session den 22 maj 1661 bemyndigade staden Hadley att välja kommissionärer med makt och utan jury att avgöra civila handlingar som inte översteg 5 pund och hantera kriminella handlingar där straffet inte översteg tio ränder för ett brott, & quot tillhandahålls nämnda gärningsmän kan överklaga sina fall till domstolarna i Springfield eller Northampton & quot. Stadsborna träffades, som auktoriserade, och valde tre kommissionärer eller suppleanter till generaldomstolarna, en var Samuel Smith, de andra två Andrew Bacon och Herr Wllliam Westwood. Han valdes igen 1663,1664, 1665, 1667, 1668, 1671 och 1673 och mycket troligtvis, om rekordet var komplett, även i några andra år. Han blev också associerad med länsrätten för Hampshire County 1678 och 1679.

Samuel Smith valdes att vara en Townsman eller Selectman pinnar efter gång, hans sista val var 1680 året för hans död. Av journalerna framgår det också att de år då han inte tjänstgjorde som stadsman tjänstgjorde hans begåvade son Philip istället. På ett år, 1675, när han inte tjänstgjorde, valdes två av hans son, Philip och Chileab.

Vid sitt sammanträde i maj 1663 godkände domstolen Samuel Smith som löjtnant för Hadley Trainband för att tjäna under kapten John Pynchon från Springfield en tjänst han innehade fram till 1678 när han avgick på grund av eller hans höga ålder. Han tjänstgjorde inaktivt i King Philip's War där 1676 hans son John dödades av indianer på Hatfield och där, ett år senare, hans svärson, John Graves mötte samma öde. Dessa tragiska dödsfall var ett tecken på det som skulle komma tjugo år senare när Elizabeth Foote Belden den 16 september 1696 var barnbarn till Lieut. Samuel Smith dödades av indianer i Deerfield, Mass. Och 6 av hennes 14 barn dödades, sårades eller fångades av dem. År 1704, också ett barnbarn, Samuel Foote låg i bakhåll och dödades av indianer.

& quot Återgå till den tidigare perioden, Samuels hem i Hadley sades ha fungerat som ett gömställe för regiciderna, Whalley och Goffe, under en del av tiden de var i Hadley. Myndigheten för detta är ett brev av den 26 mars 1793 skrivet av Samuel Hopkins till Yales president, Ezra Stiles. Det är en rimlig gissning på grund av Samuel Smiths framträdande i Hadley vid den tiden.

Den 16 december 1661 och under ett antal år därefter valdes Samuel Smith & quot räntemakare, det vill säga assessor. En platta av byn Hadley för 1663 visar Liert. Samuel Smith och hans söner Philip och Chileab äger massor på 8 tunnland vardera. (Judds Hadley, del I, s. 2h, 26.) Samuels lott värderades till högsta värdet 200 pund, Philip till 150 pund och Chileabs till 100 pund. 1681, efter Lieut. Samuels död, hans son Philip var den näst största och hans son Chileab den femte största skattebetalaren i staden. 1686 efter sonen Filips död (med hemsk trolldom) visade sonen Chileab Smith att ha varit den största skattebetalaren.

I april 1664 fick Samuel Samuel befogenhet att köpa mark och kvotto för att säkra Hadleys norra linje, (sidan 21Judds Hadley, del I), till ett pris som inte överstiger 200 pund. Han lyckades inte och begärde tribunalen vid sessionen 1664 om en gåva på 1000 hektar mark som kunde läggas till 200 pund för att tillfredsställa den hårda handelsägaren. Framställningen beviljades och transaktionen slutfördes på denna nya grund. Marken är nu en del av staden Whately, Massachusetts.

Den 14 januari 1667 valdes löjtnant Samuel Smith, tillsammans med pastor John Russell och Aaron Cooke, vid stadsmötet för att fungera som förvaltare av en fond som John Davenport från New Haven och William Goodwin från Hadley, agerade som förvaltare enligt den avlidne Mr Edward Hopkins testamente, för inrättandet av en gymnasieskola i Hadley. (Hopkins -fonden delades mellan Hadley, Mass., Hartford och New Haven, Conn. Och Harvard University.) Samuel Smith valdes också tillsammans med andra för att tjäna i en kommitté för att välja det land som skulle användas av skolan. Hans son Chileab utnämndes till förvaltare av gymnasieskolan 1686 efter Filips död som efterträdde sin far som förvaltare 1681.

"Löjtnant Samuel Smith var ursprungliga medlemmar från 1669 till hans död, i" Hadley School Committee i 50 år ", vilket i själva verket var ett uppdrag för livstid och därför endast ges till dem som var de mest betrodda och högst respekterade i staden. Han tjänstgjorde kontinuerligt i denna styrelse fram till sin död 1680 då hans plats togs av hans son Philip. Filips bror Chileab tillkom i kommittén 1687 och 1720 bestod kommittén av fyra medborgare, varav en var sergeant Joseph Smith och en annan, diakon John Smith, söner till John respektive Philip.

Ett annat bevis på den respekt och det förtroende som löjtnant Samuel Smith innehade av sina andra stadsbor var licensen de gav honom 1671 för att sälja viner och starklut, en rättighet som sparsamt gavs av Selectmen och godkändes lika sparsamt av domstolen på den tiden. År 1677 fick han befogenhet att högtidliggöra äktenskap, en rättighet han hade haft sedan 1661 men endast att utövas i frånvaro av Wllliam Westwood som först fick denna auktoritet.

I maj 1667 framträdde Samuel Smith, pastor John Russell och Peter Tilton, som agerade för Hadleys räkning, inför tribunalen i motsats till begäran från medborgarna i Hatfield att separera från Hadley. De lyckades i cirka två år att hålla upp tillbakadragandet men den 22 december 1669 kom Lieut. Samuel gas en av undertecknarna av avtalet som godkände separationen och gjorde ett slut på kontroversen. Ungefär samtidigt, den 19 februari 1669, undertecknade han en medborgarupprop till guvernören och tribunalen i Massachusetts, motsatte sig dekretet som tog ut impost och tull på varor, nötkreatur, hästar och spannmål som kom in i Hadley. De närmaste åren den 3 maj 1670, tillsammans med pastor John Russell och Henry Clark, undertecknade han en framställning & för de frisinnade Hadleys friköpare och bad tribunalen att undersöka orsaken till & quot; Guds missnöje & quot; på dem Ett bevis eller detta missnöje , verkar det som att brytandet av avvikande medlemmar i First Church of Boston för att bilda Old South Church, en händelse som rörde avlägsna delar av Massachusetts -kolonin. Minnesmärket hänvisade till "Herrens missnöje" och begärde att "det skulle finnas en allmän och högtidlig undersökning vad det är som har framkallat Herren mot oss". (Se History of Northampton av Tru, tjur 215-216, vol. I). Samma källa, sidan 572, listar Samuel Smith som en av dem som bidrog till Harvard College, 3 pund. Av linvärden vid 0-.03-00 & quotfrån den raden ovanför och nu alla nedlagda under våra 3 lb. och hälften till är pck in i den stora fatet & quot. This untranslatable gift seems small but it was about the average given by the 89 givers whose total gifts were valued at 29-17-0.

"Lieutenant Samuel Smith and his sons Philip and Chileab were well-to-do for their time. They were engaged in pursuits outside their regular professions indicating that they had capital. In 1678 Lieut. Samuel and Philip had out on loans to John Pynchon, the most prominent man in Springfield, 50 and 25 pounds respectively, at interest. These amounts appear small today but in that early period they were considerable sums

"A review of the Records or the Colony of Massachusetts Bay, Vol. IV, Part II and Vol. V, shows a number of instances where the General Court placed responsibilities upon Lieut. Smith and reposed confidence in him. He was at times assigned duties of dealing with the Indians, hearing their complaints and investigating their requests. The October Court of 1667 chose him as one of a committee of three to treat with the Indians about, "setting of a chief or head over them and by advising with them thereabouts to learn whom they account or desire to be their chief that the English may have their recourse to for satisfaction for injuries from them . and in the case of the Indians not agreeing . that the next General Court may appoint or declare some meet man to be their chief or sachem".

"Another court record, 1663, tells of a committee of six members, including Samuel Smith, being appointed to lay our a fares of 250 acres at Paucomptucke. This was the beginning of Deerfield, Massachusetts.

"In 1678 Lieutenant Smith requested, since he was "nearing 80 years of age" to be "relieved from military trust". His request was granted and his son Philip made Ensign immediately, and later in the same year raised to Lieutenant. Samuel's death two years later, (the inventory of his estate was taken January 17, 1781), indicates, perhaps, that he was justified in seeking some repose after so extended and active a career in the wilderness of a new world. The regret is that so little is known about his wife Elizabeth who remained at his side through all of these hard years, bearing and rearing his children and enduring the hardships of those pioneer times with him. Not one word is written about her trials and activities that this writer has seen. She died March 16, 1686 at the age of 84 leaving a family, the descendents of whom in the next three hundred years, were to swarm over the land producing worthy citizens and many distinguished ones, all Christian and God fearing.

"The children of Lieutenant Samuel Smith and his wife Elizabeth were four sons and two daughters. Four of these children were born in England and two in Wethersfield, Connecticut.


Återhämtning från mormonismen

--The Strange Death of Samuel H. Smith, Brother of Joseph Smith and Heir Apparent to the Assassination-Emptied Mormon Throne--

In a previous thread, RfM poster “Charley” mentioned the suspicious death of Samuel Harrison Smith, younger sibling of Joseph Smith.

As with circumstances surrounding the agonizing and mysterious death of Brigham Young, allegations have been made over the years that Samuel, too, was the victim of deliberate poisoning deviously administered by those angling for power in the time period following the assassination of Joseph Smith.

“There's . . . the rumor that Brigham Young was behind the suspicious death of Samuel Smith who is also believed to have been poisoned. Instant Karma's gonna get you.”

(“Re: Hard to Swallow: Mormon Apologists Refuse to Consider That Brigham Young May Have Been Deliberately Poisoned In His Own Household . . .,” posted by “Charley,” on “Recovery from Mormonism” board, 20 June 2011, 9:39 p.m. see also, "Hard to Swallow: Mormon Apologists Refuse to Consider That Brigham Young May Have Been Deliberately Poisoned In His Own Household," by Steve Benson, on "Recovery from Mormonism" board, 20 June 2011, 2:08 p.m.)

That rumor appears to be well-grounded.

Samuel Harrison Smith was an early baptized member of the Mormon Church, one of its original founders and one of the so-called "Eight Witnesses." He was also one of the Church's first missionaries and served on the Kirtland, Ohio, High Council.

That apparently wasn't enough to protect him, however.

Samauel died under mysterious circumstances on 30 July 1844, at the age of 36, barely a month after Joseph and Hyrum Smith were shot to death in the jailhouse siege at Carthage, Illinois.

Perhaps not coincidentally, Joseph Smith had chosen his brother Samuel to take on the leadership mantle for the Church if both he and Hyrum were killed. According to Joseph Smith's private secretary William Clayton, Joseph had "said that if he and Hyrum were taken away, Samuel H. Smith would be his successor."

After their deaths in Carthage, Samuel personally transported Joseph's body by wagon--lain in a plain pine box covered with prairie grass--back to Nauvoo.

Soon thereafter, he became violently ill and was himself dead in a matter of weeks.

(see: "Samuel Harrison Smith," at http://today.answers.com/topic/samuel-harrison-smith H. Michael Marquardt, “The Rise of Mormonism: 1816-1844” [Longwood, Florida: Xulon Press, 2005], p. 635 Dallin H. Oaks and Marvin S. Hill, “Carthage Conspiracy: The Trial of the Accused Assassins of Joseph Smith” (Urbana, Illinois, University of Illinois Press, 1976], p. 21) and Ernest H. Taves, “Trouble Enough: Joseph Smith and the Book of Mormon” [Buffalo, New York: Prometheus Books,1984], p. 216)
_____

--Cries of Foul Play from Members of Joseph Smith's Family--

Despite efforts by the Mormon Church to dismiss allegations that Samuel Harrison Smith was a victim of a murder plot at the hands of LDS Church leaders conspiring to succeed Joseph Smith, members of the Smith family vigorously contended that Samuel had been purposely killed in a power grab that took place in the aftermath of Joseph's assassination.

Five years after Samuel's death, published media accounts by the only Smith brother to survive the Nauvoo period, William, charged that Samuel had been deliberately poisoned:

"In the October 1849 issue of his newspaper, the 'Melchisedek & Aaronic Herald,' William Smith publishe[d] a list of Mormon martyrs, including Samuel H. [Smith], 'who died from the effects of poison administered to him. He died within one month after the martyrdom of his brother.'"

("Martyrs of the Latter Day Saints," in 'Melchisedek & Aaronic Herald' (Covington, Kentucky) 1, no. 7, Oct. 1849)

A few years later, in a letter to the “New York Tribune,” William Smith provided further details on the suspicious death of his brother, Samuel, pointing a direct finger at Brigham Young and Willard Richards, accusing them of orchestrating Samuel's murder:

"I have good reason for believing that my brother Samuel H. Smith, died of poison at Nauvoo, administered by order of Brigham Young and Willard Richards, only a few weeks subsequent to the unlawful murder of my other brothers, Joseph and Hiram Smith, while incarcerated in Carthage jail.

"Several other persons who were presumed to stand between Brigham Young and the accomplishment of his ambitions and wicked designs, mysteriously disappeared from Nauvoo about the same time, and have never been heard from since."

(William Smith, "Mormonism," letter to the “New York Tribune,” 28 May 1857)

In private correspondence in 1892, William Smith further asserted that Willard Richards asked Hosea Stout (who happened to be Samuel's caretaker) to kill Samuel in order to prevent Samuel from taking office as Mormon Church president before the Quorum of the Twelve (which happened to be led by Brigham Young) could convene to handpick a successor.

(William Smith, letter to "Bro. [ . . . ] Kelley,” 1 June 1892)

Samuel H. Smith's own daughter, Mary B. Smith, expressed her belief that her father and her uncle Arthur Milliken were simultaneously poisoned through the administration of a powdery toxin purported to be medicine--noting, as well, that the same doctors attended both men.

According to Mary, Milliken stopped taking the fatal substance but Samuel continued to the last dose, which "he spit out and said he was poisoned. But it was too late--he died."

(Mary B. Smith Norman, letter to Ina Coolbrith, 27 March 1908 the above citations found in "Samuel H. Smith (1808-1844)," under “Death and Succession Crisis,” in “Saints Without Halos,” at: http://www.saintswithouthalos.com/b/smith_s.phtm)

Moreover, Samuel H. Smith's wife, Levira Clark Smith, also concluded that her popular husband had, in reality, been murdered--and proceeded to name the murderer.

Writes author Richard Abanes:

"[In the wake of Josepsh Smith's death,] Samuel Smith . . . seemed a reasonable choice to many Saints [for the Church's next president]. In fact, he nearly took control of the Church before the Twelve had returned [to Nauvoo], much to the irritation of Willard Richards, who wanted no leader to be named until all the Apostles were present.

"Richards may have gone so far as to have Samuel murdered to prevent any succession. Samuel's wife believed this to be the case, naming as her husband's murderer the Chief of Police--Hosea Stout, a Danite widely known for having a violent streak and a cold-hearted disposition.

"Everyone knew he was more than capable of homicide. He had already been, and would continue to be, connected with several murders and assaults involving apostates and Church critics. . . .

"In the case of Samuel Smith, Stout had acted as Samuel's care-giver when he fell ill, and in that capacity had given Samuel 'white powder' medicine daily until his death. Samuel's wife, daughter, and brother . . . all believed the powder to be poison."

(Richard Abanes, "One Nation Under Gods: A History of the Mormon Church" [New York, New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 2002], p. 207)
_____

--Brigham Young Denies Ordering the Murder of Samuel Smith--

Brigham Young hotly denied allegations that he had also been involved in the death of Samuel H. Smith, instead offering up a questionable alibi:

". . . William Smith has asserted that I was the cause of the death of his brother Samuel when brother Woodruff, who is here to day, knows that we were waiting at the depôt in Boston to take passage east at the very time when Joseph and Hyrum were killed.

"Brother Taylor was nearly killed at the time and Doctor Richards had his whiskers nearly singed off by the blaze from the guns. In a few weeks after, Samuel Smith died and I am blamed as the cause of his death.'"

(Brigham Young, "Journal of Discourses," vol. 5, July 1857, p.77)
_____

--Dissecting Young's Shaky Denial--

Former “Recovery from Mormonism” poster "Perry Noid" raises serious questions about the truthfulness of Young's denial of involvement in the death of Samuel H. Smith:

" . . . I [am] struck at how weak [Young's] defense [is].

"He simply seem[s] to be relying on the 'Hey. I was out of town' alibi that Mafia types like to rely on after giving instructions to an agent who just happens to be 'in town.'

"It seems like he's counting on suckers not asking the next obvious question, i.e., '[S]ince [Young] and his pro-polygamy faction obviously were the prime beneficiaries of Sam[uel] Smith's untimely demise, doesn't it stand to reason that [Young] could have given instructions to a subordinate or have knowingly approved of the plan in advance?

"At the very least, isn't it possible that [Young] knew what happened after the fact and covered it up because it worked out so nicely for himself?'

"The pattern of denial by [Young] in this instance sure does feel similar to that used in the Mountain Meadows Massacre case.

"But it's also highly likely that [Young] literally got a 'taste of his own medicine' since his own death followed a prolonged episode of painful, violent vomiting and discomfort that may have been the result of a revenge poisoning."

"Perry Noid" offers additional intriguing and compelling information which makes it entirely possible to conclude that Samuel H. Smith could well have been seen as a dire threat to the interests of Young's conniving inner circle of power-mongering polygamists:

" . . . Samuel was probably the last best hope that the Smith clan had to maintain a dominant leadership position in the Church.

"If he had succeeded Hyrum to the office of Patriarch, that position could have been leveraged into a hereditary presidency that only Smiths were eligible to attain.

"Samuel probably wasn't capable of being a strong leader like Joseph, or even Hyrum, but the Smith clan was likely hoping that he would be able to hold things together long enough for Joe III to ascend to the throne.

"Samuel's claim, in addition to being supported by the fact that he was the eldest Smith male in line after Joe and Hyrum, was also supported by the fact that he was the third official convert to Mormonism, after Joe and Oliver.

"So, I believe that, first and foremost, he was a serious obstacle to the ambitions of the strong pro-polygamy faction that was coalescing behind Brigham.

"I don't know whether or not Samuel would have continued to go along with polygamy but my impression was that he was not an enthusiastic supporter and the remainder of the Smith clan would probably have intended to dump it all together, knowing that it would be a continuing source of trouble for their Church.

"One biography of Samuel indicates that he had no plural wives, but only married his second wife after his first wife had died."

“Perry Noid” further adds that Hosea Stout, former police chief of Nauvoo, may indeed have been the administrator of deadly toxins to Samuel Smith during a power struggle over the issue of polygamy:

”. . . Samuel was possibly intentionally poisoned by an agent of Brigham Young in 1844. (Samuel was considered by many to be well ahead of Brigham Young in the contest for succession to Joseph Smith, but suddenly fell ill and died on July 30, 1844--barely a month after the deaths of his brothers, Joseph and Hyrum.) . . .

“[Historian D. Michael] Quinn argues that Willard Richards instructed Hosea Stout, a former Danite and police chief of Nauvoo, to poison Samuel Smith. He died not long after Joseph died. While most of the Church leaders were away from Nauvoo at the time, the Church leadership quickly split along the lines of polygamy. Those who favored the continued practice of polygamy and secret ordinances were partial to Brigham Young and wanted to wait until the Quorum of Twelve Apostles returned to Nauvoo before choosing a successor.

"Those who were opposed to the practice of polygamy and secret ordinances favored the leadership of William Marks. Sidney Rigdon quickly made a proposal to become guardian of the Church and Marks threw his support behind Rigdon. However, the day before the meeting to decide whether Rigdon should be appointed guardian, the Apostles returned to Nauvoo.” (Garn LeBaron, Jr., “'The Mormon Hierachy: Origins of Power'--A Review,” 1995, at: http://www.exmormon.org/hierarch.htm )”

("Thanks for the re-post," by "Perry Noid," Recovery from Mormonism board, 5 June, year unknown and "My understanding of the situation . . .," idem, RfM board, 5 June, year unknown, at http://www.exmormon.org/mormon/mormon248.htm )
_____

--Further Reasons to Question Brigham Young's Attempts at Distancing Himself from the Dastardly Deed--

Noting the documentation amassed by historian D. Michael Quinn as well as others, avid student of Mormon history and former RfM poster "Deconstructor" asks, "Why would such an accusation be laid against Brigham Young?," then explains:

“This troubling piece of information came from a Church talk Brigham Young gave in 1857:

"'And William Smith has asserted that I was the cause of the death of his brother Samuel, when brother Woodruff, who is here to day, knows that we were waiting at the depôt in Boston to take passage east at the very time when Joseph and Hyrum were killed. Brother Taylor was nearly killed at the time, and Doctor Richards had his whiskers nearly singed off by the blaze from the guns. In a few weeks after, Samuel Smith died, and I am blamed as the cause of his death." (Prophet Brigham Young, July 1857, 'Journal of Discourses,' vol. 5, p.c77)

“I checked Church history sources and found these clues about the death of Joseph Smith's brother [Samuel] in Navuoo, who died little over a month after Joseph was killed:

"'Samuel Harrison Smith, born in Tunbridge, Vt., March 13, 1808. Died July 30, 1844, broken-hearted and worn out with persecution. Aged 36. The righteous are removed from the evils to come.' (“Times and Seasons,” Vol.5, No.24, p. 760)

"'Hyrum & Joseph w[ere] murdered in Carthage Jail in Hancock Co[,] Illinois. Samuel Smith died in Nauvoo, supposed to have been the subject of conspiricy by Brigham Young.' (“Joseph Smith Family Testimony, William Smith Notes,” circa 1875, in Vogel, “Early Mormon Documents,” p. 488)

"To understand the context, you have to remember that after Smith and Hyrum were killed, there was some conflict over who should be his successor.

"Brigham Young was not in Nauvoo when Smith was killed but started to head back as soon as he heard the news.

"Meanwhile in Nauvoo, several potential leaders were positioning to take the reins of leadership. The most popular replacement was Samuel Smith, the brother of Joseph Smith. William Clayton had recorded Joseph declaring his brother William his successor if both he and Hyrum were killed.

"But Brigham Young's first cousin and Church apostle, William Richards, insisted that nothing should be decided until Brigham Young could return to Nauvoo.

"However, many members did not want to wait, and more and more support was gathering behind Samuel Smith, Joseph Smith's brother, to become the next Prophet and leader of the Church.

"For a select few, this presented a problem because Samuel was violently against polygamy. It was looking like Samuel Smith would become the next prophet and promised to denounce the practice of plural marriage.

"Michael Quinn, from 'The Mormon Hierarchy: Origins of Power,' explains what happened next:

"'Then Samuel Smith suddenly became violently ill and died on 30 July 1844. This added suspicion of murder to the escalating drama.

"'Council of Fifty member and physician John M. Bernhisel told William Smith that anti-Mormons had somehow poisoned his brother.

"'William learned from Samuel's widow that Hosea Stout, a Missouri Danite and senior officer of Nauvoo's police, had acted as his brother's nurse. Stout had given him "white powder" medicine daily until his death. Samuel became ill within days of the discussion of his succession right, and by 24 July was "very sick."

"'There had been enough talk about Samuel's succession claims that the newspaper in Springfield, Illinois, reported, "A son of Joe Smith [Sr.] it is said, had received the revelation that he was to be the successor of the prophet."

"'William Smith eventually concluded that Apostle Willard Richards asked [Hosea] Stout to murder (his brother) Samuel H. Smith.

"'The motive was to prevent Samuel from becoming Church president before Brigham Young and the full Quorum of Twelve arrived (in Nauvoo).

"William's suspicions about Stout are believable since Brigham Young allowed William Clayton to go with the pioneer company to Utah three years later only because Stout threatened to murder Clayton as soon as the apostles left.

"Clayton regarded Hosea Stout as capable of homicide and recorded no attempt by Young to dispute that assessment concerning the former Danite.

"One could dismiss William Smith's charge as a self-serving argument for his own succession claim, yet Samuel's daughter also believed her father was murdered.

"'My father was undoubtedly poisoned,' she wrote. 'Uncle Arthur Millikin was poisoned at the same time--the same doctors were treating my father and Uncle Arthur at the same time. Uncle Arthur discontinued the medicine-without letting them know that he was doing so. (Aunt Lucy [Smith Millikin] threw it in the fire).

"'Father continued taking it until the last dose [which] he spit out and said he was poisoned. But it was too late--he died.'

"Nauvoo's sexton recorded that Samuel Smith died of 'bilious fever,' [which was] the cause of death listed for two children but no other adults that summer.

"This troubling allegation should not be ignored but cannot be verified.

"Nevertheless, Clayton's diary confirms the efforts of Richards to avoid the appointment of a successor before his first cousin Brigham Young arrived.

"'Stout's diary also describes several occasions when Brigham Young and the apostles seriously discussed having Hosea "rid ourselves" of various Church members considered dangerous to the Church and the apostles. Stout referred to this as "cut him off--behind the ears--according to the law of God in such cases."

"'Stout's daily diary also makes no reference whatever to his threat to murder Clayton in 1847. When the Salt Lake "municipal high council" tried Hosea Stout for attempted murder, he protested that "it has been my duty to hunt out the rotten spots in the Kingdom." He added that he had "tried not to handle a man's case until it was right."

"'Evidence does not exist to prove if the prophet's brother was such a "case" Stout handled."' (D. Michael Quinn, “The Mormon Hierarchy: Origins of Power”

(“Did Brigham Young Murder Joseph Smith's Brother? (References),” posted by “Deconstructor,” on “Recovery from Mormonism” board, 6 April, year unknown, at: http://www.exmormon.org/mormon/mormon248.htm)

In support of William Smith's charge that Samuel H. Smith was rubbed out on the orders of Brigham Young in order to prevent him from becoming head of the LDS Church, historian Dan Vogel repeats testimony from members of Joseph Smith's own family:

"'Hyrum & Joseph w[ere] murdered Carthage Jail in Hancock Co[,] Illinois. Samuel Smith died in Nauvoo, supposed to have been the subject of conspiracy by Brigham Young.'"

(Dan Vogel, "Joseph Smith Family Testimony, William Smith Notes," circa 1875, in "Early Mormon Documents," p. 488 and "Was Joseph Smith's brother Samuel Murdered?," by "Deconstructor," at: http://www.i4m.com/think/leaders/brigham_murder.htm)
_____

--Mormon Supporters Claim Samuel Smith's Death Was Due to Accidental Injury or Fever--

Despite numerous indications fueling deep suspicions that Samuel H. Smith may have died of deliberate poisoning at the hands of an inner Mormon circle cabal, the LDS Church-owned and -published "Encyclopedia of Mormonism" makes the suggestion that he actually died from a conveniently unidentified horse-riding injury, supposedly sustained during Samuel's dramatic effort to save the lives of his brothers Joseph and Hyrum:

"Upon hearing of the dangers to his brothers at Carthage, Samuel attempted to ride to their aid, but arrived too late to intervene. He died within the month, apparently of an injury sustained in that ride."

(Sydney Smith Reynolds, "Smith Family," in "Encyclopedia of Mormonism: The History, Scriptures, Doctrine, and Procedure of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints," vol. 3 (New York, New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1992], p. 1360)
_____

--Other Mormon Historians Don't Parrot the LDS Apologist Spin--

LDS historian Donna Hill mentions nothing about Samuel suffering a riding injury, claiming instead that in his gallop to Carthage to save his brothers, he was chased by a mob, arrived too late to rescue them, carried the murdered bodies of Joseph and Hyrum back to Nauvoo and, amid this ordeal, "[c] ontracted a fever and survived his brothers by only a few weeks."

Fellow LDS historians Leonard J. Arrington and Davis Bitton agree with Hill's explanation of Samuel Smith's death, adding only that the mob that chased Samuel on his ride to Nauvoo had "mud-daubed faces."

(Donna Hill, “Joseph Smith, the First Mormon: The Definitive Story of a Complex and Charismatic Man and the People Who Knew Him” [Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, 1977], p. 448 and Leonard J. Arrington and Davis Bitton, “The Mormon Experience: A History of the Latter-day Saints” [New York, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1979], p. 82)
_____

--The Assessment of Samuel Harrison Smith's Death from Non-Mormon Historical Circles--

Other professional observers--notably the non-Mormon variety--aren't as willing to shrug off Samuel H. Smith's death to a riding injury or a fever.

Richard N. and Joan K. Ostling, in their book, “The Power and the Promise: Mormon America,“ note that Joseph Smith designated his brother Samuel to be his successor, adding that Samuel "would have succeeded [his assassinated brother] Hyrum as [Church] Patriarch and thus had a claim [to succeed Joseph as prophet], but died just weeks after Joseph and Hyrum, amid rumors he had been poisoned."

(Richard N. Ostling and Joan K. Ostling, “The Power and the Promise: Mormon America” [San Francisco, California: HarperSanFrancisco, 1999], p. 337)
_____

--Conclusion: In Mormonism, the Living Prophets Are More Important Than the Dead Prophets--

Could it be that some of the dead prophets became dead at the hands of those who wanted to become the living prophets?

You might be inclined to drink to that.

atheist&happy:-)
Sounds like TSCC we all know, and detest today.
It would make sense for the likes of BY & friends to protect their interests to the point of murder. Their interests being power over the people to control the money, and women. I guess the lard was too busy to manage a nice, orderly succession for his so-called church.

The actual history of TSCC is fairly violent. All I ever heard was the whitewashed version.

I think the Smith's probably felt entitlement to the "family business". As interested parties fought over the empire, how many of the sheeple thought the lard was in charge? I think the men vying for power knew they did not have any special powers from on high.

.
Re: Another Poisoning in the Murderous Saga of Machiavellian Mormonism?: Bumping Off the Next In Line to the Prophet's Throne

dane
It's interesting how blood soaked the church is right from its inceptions.
One can only speculate how many people lost their lives under JS reign. He may have been a bit less ostentatious in his executions than BY but still, I if you didn't support and agree with Joseph your life was on the line. I believe the church was founded on blood but not Christ's.

AmIWhiteYet?
Re: Another Poisoning in the Murderous Saga of Machiavellian Mormonism?: Bumping Off the Next In Line to the Prophet's Throne
Why don't they exhume the body and test the fair fibers. If he was in fact poisoned, it would definitely show up!

kimball
Re: Another Poisoning in the Murderous Saga of Machiavellian Mormonism?: Bumping Off the Next In Line to the Prophet's Throne
Very interesting. This would shed some light on why Brigham Young pushed blood atonement doctrine so heavily. I always wondered where he had gotten that from, if he had picked it up from some obscure statements he had heard from Joseph, or what? Even so, it doesn't make sense why he would talk about it so much. This is the first explanation I've heard that makes sense. Deep down he knew he was responsible for murder, so he subconsciously (or consciously) was trying to justify that action. Saying things like it would have been better for apostates had their blood been spilt, and we don't fully understand blood atonement doctrine, but it's right in the sight of God - it all makes sense now.

steve benson
It's called theological reverse engineering. Embark on a killing policy, then invent a divine justification for it. Religion has a bloody history of doing exactly that.

ontheDownLow
I made this hypothesis too about 2 months ago.
I already brought up the notion that BY was behind the death of Samuel but possibly also Joseph and Hyrum. His trip to Boston could have been an alibi. Joe called for the mormon militia who never showed up plus Govern. Ford was setting up the demise. Almost like BY was corredinating the whole thing from the printing press of the Navuoo Expositor all the way down to Sam's death in order to take over.

steve benson
Interesting hypothesis. Mormonism was certainly a bloody business in BY's day--and under his rule.

kimball
Re: It's called theological reverse engineering. Embark on a killing policy, then invent a divine justification for it. Religion has a bloody history of doing exactly that.
Brigham or Willard was probably reading about Nephi and Laban when he first concocted the idea. It's better for one man to perish than for an entire religion to dwindle in unbelief (in the divine and imperative concept of polygamy). The Book of Mormon could have given them the idea!

atheist&happy:-)
I think BY preached blood atonement to keep the sheeple in line like any abuser would.
Abusers often make death threats or are violent to third parties to intimidate their victims. In my family, several times, while out driving, my dad threatened to deliberately cause an accident to kill me. He said if he knew he was going to die he would kill me first, because I was not worth going to jail over, and then pretend he had cancer. One morning while I was getting ready for school, he was telling my brothers that I was not to be buried in the family cemetery. This is what abusers do to keep victims scared.

To me it makes perfect sense why BY would talk about it so much. The Masonic penalties, and oaths, and retribution of the OT were conveniences that made their job easier. I see them as abusers from the outset, and the whole of TSCC is an exercise in justification for "leaders" taking things they have no right to in the first place. Religion was made for patriarchal abusers!

steve benson
Abusive religions attract abusive people--and since many abusive religions are headed by men, they attract abusive patriarchal men . . .
. . . although any here who attended parochial Catholic school as kids might be able to attest to the reign of terror by those nuns. :)

Charley
Re: Another Poisoning in the Murderous Saga of Machiavellian Mormonism?: Bumping Off the Next In Line to the Prophet's Throne
Very interesting post Steve. We all know BY condoned murder. After all he kept Rockwell and Hickman around for just such reasons. And it sure looks like JS ordered Rockwell to murder the governor of Missouri.

Early mormonism has a lot in common with the Catholic church under the Borgias. If someone pisses you off poison them. Not that I know that much about the Borgias. I'm still wondering how someone could be pope and have children.

anonym
Re: Another Poisoning in the Murderous Saga of Machiavellian Mormonism?: Bumping Off the Next In Line to the Prophet's Throne
Well-yes in the Bom there is a scripture that state the chief judger is murdered and the kingdom descends thru murder, mystery n intrigue. I've been poisoned w drano rat poison n warfarin. They are masters at arranging things and yes its all over power. As if what's not going in the world isn't bad enough. Its an inhouse they have in house craziness. Can't get away from the misery.


Samuel Smith - History

Henry “Box” Brown was born enslaved in Louisa County, Virginia in 1815. When he was 15, he was sent to Richmond to work in a tobacco factory. His life was filled with unrewarded drudgery, although he had it better than most of his enslaved peers. The loss of freedom prevented him from living with his wife, Nancy, who was owned by a slave master on an adjacent plantation. She was pregnant with their fourth child when, in 1848, he heard the tragic news: Nancy and his children were to be sold to a plantation in North Carolina. He stood with tears in his eyes on the side of the street as he watched 350 slaves in chains walk by him, including his wife with their unborn child and three young children. He could only wish them a tearful last farewell— he was helpless to save them.
After months of mourning his loss, Henry resolved to escape from slavery. He was a man of faith and a member of the First African Baptist Church where he sang in the choir. He acknowledged that, through his faith in God, he was given the inspiration and courage to put together a creative plan of escape.

The plan and preparation to obtain his freedom:

Henry enlisted the help of his choir-member friend, James Caesar Anthony Smith, a free Black who knew Samuel Alexander Smith, a White sympathizer. (They were not related but had the same last name.) Samuel Smith liked to gamble and, for a profit, agreed to help Henry Brown with his plan. The plan that Henry envisioned was for himself to be shipped in a box by rail from Richmond to Philadelphia, a very creative, unique, and dangerous endeavour.

Samuel Alexander Smith in turn contacted James Miller McKim, a White abolitionist and seasoned member (along with William Still) of the Philadelphia Anti-Slavery Society. Samuel Alexander Smith shipped Henry by Adams Express Company on March 23, 1849, in a box 3 feet long by 2 feet 8 inches deep by 2 feet wide, and sent the box as “dry goods.” Henry Brown traveled in the box lined with baize, a coarse woollen cloth, carrying with him only one bladder of water and a few biscuits. There was a hole cut in the box for air, and it was nailed and tied with straps in large words, “This side up” was written on the box. Brown traveled by a variety of wagons, railroads, steamboats, ferries, and finally, for added safety, a delivery wagon that brought the box to the Philadelphia Anti-Slavery Society before daybreak.

During the 27- hour journey, the box was turned upside down on several occasions and handled roughly. Henry wrote that he “was resolved to conquer or die, I felt my eyes swelling as if they would burst from their sockets and the veins on my temples were dreadfully distended with pressure of blood upon my head.” At one point, Henry thought that he might die, but fortunately two men needed a place to sit down and, “so perceiving my box, standing on end, one of the men threw it down and the two sat upon it. I was thus relieved from a state of agony which may be more imagined than described.” The box with Brown in side was received by William Still, James Miller McKim, Professor C.D. Cleveland, and Lewis Thompson. Upon the box being opened, Brown said, “How do you do, Gentlemen?” then recited a psalm: “I waited patiently on the Lord and He heard my prayer.” He then began to sing the psalm to the delight of the four men present, and was christened Henry “Box” Brown.

The aftermath of Henry "Box" Brown's Courageous journey to freedom:

Samuel Alexander Smith attempted to ship more enslaved from Richmond to Philadelphia on May 8, 1849, but was discovered and arrested. In November of that year, he was sentenced to six-and-one-half years in the state penitentiary. James Caesar Anthony Smith, the free Black, was also arrested on September 25 for attempting another shipment of slaves, but he fared better. The trial that followed resulted in a divided panel of magistrates, and James Caesar Anthony Smith was released and later joined Brown in Boston.

The abolitionist movement of the day held two opposing points of view. Frederick Douglass made it clear that Henry Brown’s escape should not be made public, as others could use this same method. However, others thought that the publicity would help the movement, and that it was just too good a story to keep from the growing number of the public who opposed slavery.

Henry Brown was intoxicated with the feeling that freedom brought, and his personality would not allow him to remain quiet about his achievement. He was his own man and a working class individual. He used this miraculous event to make a new life for himself. He also used his great imagination to support himself. In May 1849, Henry appeared before the New England Anti-Slavery Society Convention in Boston, where he left no doubt in the minds of the audience that the enslaved desired freedom. Brown also became a performer, often reciting the psalm he had sung when he first emerged from the box. In September 1849, the narrative of Henry “Box” Brown was published in Boston by Charles Stearns.

Henry “Box” Brown again showed his creativity late in 1849 when he hired artists and others to begin work on a moving panorama about slavery. In April 1850 Henry “Box” Brown’s “Mirror of Slavery” opened in Boston and was exhibited throughout the summer. With the passing of the Fugitive Slave Act on August 30, 1850, it was no longer safe for Brown to remain in the Northern Free States, as he could be captured and returned to Virginia. Therefore, he sailed for England in October 1850. His panorama was exhibited throughout England. In May 1851, Brown’s own “First English Edition” of the narrative of his life was published in Manchester.

All, however, was not well for Henry “Box” Brown. He was being criticized over finances and for not trying harder to purchase his own family. Thus, Brown left the abolitionist circuit completely and embraced English show business for the next 25 years. He married in 1859, and in 1875, accompanied by his wife and daughter Annie, he returned to the United States. He performed as a magician and continued to climb into his original box as part of his act throughout the eastern United States.

Brown’s last performance is reported to have taken place in Brantford, Ontario, Canada as stated in a Brantford newspaper on February 26, 1889. No later information on Henry “Box” Brown and his family has been discovered. The date and location of his death are unknown.

What is known is that he was a symbol of the Underground Railroad Freedom Movement. He was a man who took courage and combined it with creativity. Henry “Box” Brown soon discovered that in order to survive in the free world, he had to reinvent himself. He realized also that courage is not always given to you. By an act of faith, he said to that “Higher Power” who gave him the creative idea to seek freedom in a box, “Continue to command me now as a freeman, to do the impossible!”


African Colonization

The first half of Smith’s outlandish scheme had a strange afterlife, thanks to the careers of two of his students. Robert Finley, who became a clergyman in Basking Ridge after graduating from Princeton in 1787, was fascinated by the problem Smith had defined in his lectures: how could the evil of slavery be safely removed from the nation? Charles Fenton Mercer, the son of a Virginia slaveholder, graduated from Princeton in 1797 with the conviction that slavery should be abolished. He went on to become a U.S. congressman, a role that gave him a powerful platform from which to promote his beliefs.[16]

In 1816, Finley and Mercer proposed a colonization plan by which African Americans could escape the debilitating effects of white prejudice. They had tweaked Smith’s scheme in two important ways: the colony would be located in West Africa rather than the western territories of the United States, and it would be limited to black colonists only. Mercer and Finley met with Samuel Stanhope Smith in the fall of 1816 as their plans took shape. Finley then convened his first meeting in Princeton, before traveling to Washington in December 1816 to found the new American Colonization Society (ACS).

The ACS immediately attracted the most powerful men in the nation to its ranks. James Madison, another Princeton alumnus, welcomed Finley to Washington, while James Monroe, his successor in the White House, helped the society to purchase what became the colony of Liberia in 1820. (The colony received its name from Maryland politician Robert Goodloe Harper, yet another colonizationist taught by Samuel Stanhope Smith at Princeton.) The ACS quickly became the most popular solution to the problem of slavery among ‘moderate’ whites across the nation. Colonization struggled to win support from free blacks, however, who suspected its motives and its white managers, and the ACS eventually drew fire from William Lloyd Garrison and other radical white abolitionists. But in the decades before the Civil War, the ACS received support from some of the most celebrated figures in American public life: from James Madison, who became the ACS president in 1833, to Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Abraham Lincoln.

The numerous connections between Princeton and the colonization movement led back to Samuel Stanhope Smith, and to the intellectual ambiguities of his racial universalism. Smith’s thinking was hamstrung by an over-dependence on physical malleability and a quiet privileging of whiteness. He rejected permanent racial hierarchies and recognized the corrosive effects of slavery, but placed so much faith in environment (and in the essential benevolence of the antislavery slaveholder) that his writings on race and slavery lacked a critical edge. By the time he’d developed his fantasy of moving black people to the West and experimenting with amalgamation, his more sober disciples had already embraced colonization without any reference to racial mixing.

Smith, like many reformers before 1830, was both a gradualist and a believer in the logic of cooptation: he sincerely imagined that slavery could be abolished with the consent of slaveholders, and that the common origins of blacks and whites would lead to a recognition of their shared humanity. By 1816, as the ACS established exile as the precondition for black freedom, Smith’s partial universalism had terminated in an early version of separate-but-equal. That same year, Virginia abolitionist George Bourne pronounced a harsh verdict on the man who had shaped the racial thinking of the post-Revolutionary generation:


Titta på videon: Adam Smith y La riqueza de las naciones. Liberty Fund